It is a two-step process light reaction and dark reaction Coenzyme A has a complex structure consisting of an adenosine triphosphate, a pantothenic acid which is a B-vitamin and cysteamine. Abstract. Photosynthesis is the method in which, the phosphorylation of ADP to generate ATP occur with the help of the energy in form of sunlight is known photophosphorylation. NADPH stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? Also Read: Difference between Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. 8.33: TPP is a coenzyme involved in transfer of aldehyde (—C—H) groups, like acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde. Difference between Light and Dark Reaction – Learn how these two processes vary from each other Photosynthesis is the process of conversion of light energy into chemical energy which can then be utilized by living organisms. Which molecule controls the rate of the pentose phosphate pathway? Enzymes exist in our cells that can remove a phosphate from ATP and attach it to a different molecule-usually a protein (See Figure 3). Its reduced form is NADP. Main Difference – Apoenzyme vs Holoenzyme. Cells use a molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate(or ATP) as an energy source (See figure 2). NADPH donates the hydrogen (H) and associated electrons, oxidizing the molecule to create NADP+. FAD and FMN are other redox currencies • Prosthetic groups: tightly bound to enzyme • Can transfer 1 or 2 electrons (plus 1 or 2 protons) Title: Microsoft PowerPoint - … But watch out; many NAD supplements are full of artificial ingredients and fillers, and some may not actually contain what’s listed on the bottle. The same is true for its NAD counterparts. The structures of riboflavin, FMN and FAD are shown in Fig. ... Good. Cobalamine acts as coenzyme for enzymes catalyzing intra-molecular transfer of carboxyl group. Found in all living cells, NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. Only NADH donates electrons to the electron transport chain c. Only ATP is produced in the citric acid cycle d. … The structures of PAL and PAM are shown in Fig. Anabolic Reaction – A reaction which uses small monomers to build large polymer molecules. The water molecules split into hydrogen and oxygen. NAD+ is a key co-enzyme that the mitochondria in every cell of our bodies depend on to fuel all basic functions. When the light hits, chlorophyll a get excited to higher energy state followed by a series of reactions. (3,4)NAD+ play a key role in communicating between our cells nucleus and the Mitochondria that power all activity in our cells (5,6,7)Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects. This chemical occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in the chemical process that generates energy. No, the dark reaction does not occur at night. The electron transfer cascade from photosystem I to NADP + was studied at physiological pH by flash-absorption spectroscopy in a Synechocystis PCC6803 reconstituted system comprised of purified photosystem I, ferredoxin, and ferredoxin-NADP + reductase. The reaction is shown in a simplified way (Fig. NADP :- nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate. NADH is the reduced form of NAD+. NADH will deliver the hydrogens and electrons it picks up to process that make ATP. Co2 is utilized in the dark reaction. Often referred to as coenzyme 1, NADH is the body’s top-ranked coenzyme, a facilitator of numerous biological reactions. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are derivatives of the B-vitamin, nicotinic acid. Some NAD containing dehydrogenases are lactic dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glycerin aldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase etc. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor central to metabolism. An enzyme reaction transfers the electrons from the protein to NADP + that forms NADPH (which has high chemical energy due to the energy of the electrons). Cellular respirationis the process of utilizing oxygen and food molecules to create energy, carbon dioxide, water, and waste products. PAM can react with a keto acid to produce an amino acid. 2. The thiazole group of the coenzyme molecule accepts the aldehyde group and transfers it to an acceptor via other coenzymes, like lipoic acid and coenzyme A. TPP is involved in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid. Difference between Cyclic and Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. This chemical occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in the chemical process that generates energy. Following are the important difference between cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation: Instead, we'll be focusing on two comp… The photosystem is the arrangement of pigments, including chlorophyll within thylakoids. Glucose is the end product. Cobalamine or vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing complex molecule composed of 63 carbon atoms, a tetrapyrole ring system and a nucleotide. Which molecule controls the rate of the pentose phosphate pathway? It’s up to your choice of either NAD or NADP as the cosubstrate will not just make affect the turnover rate of a redox reaction but also its a combination of free energy (ΔG). Cells use a molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate(or ATP) as an energy source (See figure 2). Catabolic Reaction – A reaction which releases the energy from the bonds of large molecules and stores them in electron carriers. What is ATP? It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. The hydrogen of NADPH combines with CO2. The light reaction occurs in the thylakoids of the chloroplast. What are the end products of light reactions? Coenzymes: Meaning and Classification | Enzymes, Sterilization of Bacteria: Top 4 Methods | Microbiology. Answer Now and help others. The reactions catalysed by transaminases can be represented in a simple way as shown in Fig. An example is pyruvate carboxylase which adds a CO2 molecule to pyruvic acid forming oxalacetic acid. Therefore, it is known as the dark reaction. An example of a reaction involving THF is conversion of homocysteine to methionine. 8.34: An example of an enzyme complex involving TPP, lipoic acid and coenzyme A is the pyruvate decarboxylase. the phosphate group which is attached to NAD. In photophosphorylation process, light energy is used to make a high-energy electron donor and a lower-energy electron acceptor. 4. Think of the third phosphate as being a little sack of energy. The “H” stands for high-energy hydrogen and indicates that this substance is in the most biologically active form possible. One of the hydrogen ions is included in the structure of NADPH, while the other is released as a product of reaction. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are derivatives of the B-vitamin, nicotinic acid. power (ex: NAD and NADP) • 2 electron, 1 proton carriers • cosubstrates: diffuse between different enzymes • NAD: primarily used in catabolism • NADP: primarily used in anabolism. NAD and NADP act as conezymes for many degydrogenases where they are involved in transfer of hydrogen, causing either oxidation or reduction of the substrates. Glucose is the end product of the dark reaction. 3. NADP+ is created in anabolic reactions, or reaction that build large molecules from small molecules. When this happens, we say that the protein has been phosphorylated. Let’s use NAD (NAD means generally both NAD⁺ and NADH) to explain the problem with the particular reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase: H₃C–CH₂–OH + NAD⁺ → H₃C–CH=O + NADH + H⁺ a. This molecule plays a crucial role in some of the chemical reactions that make up the process of photosynthesis.NADPH is a product of the first stage of photosynthesis and is used to help fuel the reactions that take place in the second stage of photosynthesis. The “H” stands for high-energy hydrogen and indicates that this substance is in the most biologically active form possible. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+, meaning that the latter features an extra hydrogen ion in its chemical structure. 8.38: Lipoic acid is involved in oxidative decarboxylation reactions, such as those catalysed by pyruvic decarboxylase or α-keto glutarate decarboxylase. In the dark reaction, plants use carbon dioxide with ATP and NADPH from the light reactions to produce glucose. Catabolic Reaction – A reaction which releases the energy from the bonds of large molecules and stores them in electron carriers. Both ATP and NADH are energy containing molecules. Share Your PPT File. Not surprisingly, NAD and the closely related NADP are the two most abundant cofactors in eukaryotic cell. NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) are the most abundant types of coenzymes inside the cell, which are used as electron and hydrogen carriers.NADH and NADPH are the reduced forms of NAD and NADP, respectively.Though NADH and NADPH are structurally more similar, they differ by their … Not surprisingly, NAD and the closely related NADP are the two most abundant cofactors in eukaryotic cell. Richard C. Leegood, Robert P. Walker, in C4 Plant Biology, 1999. Difference Between Cyclic and Non Cyclic Photophosphorylation Photosynthesis is the process of producing carbohydrates by green plants using CO2 and H2O in the presence of sunlight. NADPH donates the hydrogen (H) and associated electrons, oxidizing the molecule to create NADP+. The main difference between NADH and FADH 2 is that every NADH molecule produces 3 ATP molecules during oxidative phosphorylation whereas every FADH 2 molecule produces 2 ATP molecules.Furthermore, NADH transfers electrons to Cytochrome complex I while FADH 2 transfers electrons to Cytochrome complex II.. NADH and FADH 2 are the reduced forms of coenzymes, known … Side by Side Comparison – ATP vs ADP 5. Electrons from Photosystem I am accepted by NADP and it does not return back. Glucose oxidase methods rely on one of the following approaches to produce a measurable signal: 1. The light reaction is a light-dependent process which includes a series of events such as light absorption, hydrolysis, the release of oxygen, formation of ATP and NADPH. It works as a reducing agent in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis. This molecule plays a crucial role in some of the chemical reactions that make up the process of photosynthesis. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge nadph + nad + nadp + + nadh NADH and NADPH are water-soluble electron carriers that associate reuersibly with dehydrogenases. Enzymes exist in our cells that can remove a phosphate from ATP and attach it to a different molecule-usually a protein (See Figure 3). Here, the electrons combine with the protons – H+ which is produced by splitting up of the water molecule and reduces NADP to NADPH2. Because of the positive charge on the nitrogen atom in the nicotinamide ring (upper right), the oxidized forms of these important redox reagents are often depicted as NAD + and NADP + respectively. NADH stands for "nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + hydrogen (H)." 8.37: These include lipoic acid (thioctic acid), biotin, tetrahydrofolic acid and cobalamine. Both the NAD and FAD are both electron carriers.Main difference seen between the two is in accepting the hydrogen atoms. Difference between Cyclic Photophosphorylation and Non- Cyclic Photophosphorylation Photophosphorylation. When it is transferred to a protein, this energy can be used to do something… Apoenzyme and holoenzyme are two states of enzymes. In order for NADP+ to transform into NADPH, the former requires two electrons and two hydrogen ions. This molecule is typically at a lower concentration than its counterpart NADPH, which favors the release of the hydrogen and electron from … The substrate is thereby oxidized. NAD+ accepts a hydride ion to become NADH. Your email address will not be published. It is a rather complex process which is carried out through various stages. The sulfhydryl (-SH) group of cysteamine moiety of this coenzyme forms a thioester with the carboxyl (-COOH) group of the acyl-compound, such as acetic acid to produce acetyl-CoA which is one of the most important CoA derivatives. … It is known as the energy currency of life (in all organisms including bacteria to humans) and its … Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor central to metabolism. It is a light-independent process in which sugar molecules are formed from the carbon dioxide and water molecules. Healthy bodies make all the NADH they need using vitamin B3 (also known as niacin, or nicotinamide) as a starting point. It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. What is the end product of the dark reaction? 8.36. NAD+ accepts a hydride ion to become NADH. Future investigation into the metabolism and biological functions of NAD and NADP may expose fundamental properties of life, and suggest new strategies for treating diseases and slowing the aging process. 8.30. In the other reaction, acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol where NADH2 acts as H-donor. PAL and PAM remain bound to the protein part of the transaminase enzyme during these transfer of amino group. The key difference between NAD and NADP is that NAD has two phosphate groups, while NADP has three phosphate groups. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme present in biological systems. An enzyme only becomes active when the cell needs to perform the biochemical reaction catalyzed by that particular enzyme. What is the significance of transpiration? Two examples are cited below, one of reduction and the other or oxidation: Lactic acid is oxidized to pyruvic acid where NAD acts as H-acceptor. Pyridoxal phosphate has a simple molecule containing the B-vitamin, pyridoxine. The thioester bond is energy-rich and can easily transfer the acetyl- group to an acceptor. AddThis. We will not be going into any great detail on these three phases here. The energy‐yielding steps of glycolysis involve reactions of 3‐carbon compounds to yield ATP and reducing equivalents as NADH. Also, hydrolysis occurs and releases oxygen. Both NAD and NADP are structurally similar but, NADP contains a phosphate group. NADH is the abbreviation for the naturally occurring biological substance, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? power (ex: NAD and NADP) • 2 electron, 1 proton carriers • cosubstrates: diffuse between different enzymes • NAD: primarily used in catabolism • NADP: primarily used in anabolism. Following are the important difference between cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation: Cyclic Photophosphorylation: Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation: Only … The water molecules split into hydrogen and oxygen. Start studying 4.4.4 The Difference Between Cofactors and Coenzymes. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Succinic acid is oxidized to fumaric acid by the enzyme. As stated above, photosynthesis occurs in two phases – light reaction and dark reaction. Choosing the best NAD supplement is … Healthy bodies make all the NADH they need using vitamin B3 … FAD and FMN are other redox currencies • Prosthetic groups: tightly In this transfer process, PAL acts as the acceptor of the amino group and is converted to pyridoxamine phosphate (PAM). It can take place in the presence or absence of sunlight. The CO2-biotin compound is known as active CO2. 8.36: The aldehyde group of PAL is the reactive group of the coenzyme which binds to the amino acid forming a Schiff s base. Also Refer: Photosynthesis in Higher plants. In contrast to NAD or NADP, the coenzymes of flavoproteins are more tightly bound to the apoenzyme. Plants make ATP from other sources such as metal ions and turn carbon dioxide into glucose. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+, meaning that the latter features an extra hydrogen ion in its chemical structure. NAD supplements are available everywhere from online retailers to your local convenience store. 8.30: NAD and NADP act as conezymes for many degydrogenases where they are involved in transfer of hydrogen, causing either oxidation or reduction of the substrates. The molecule acts as a shuttle for electrons during cellular respiration. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an important nucleotide found in cells. NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FADH2 (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) are two main coenzymes utilized in almost all biochemical pathways. In this article we will discuss about the structure and function of various coenzymes. The coenzyme is involved in transfer of acyl-groups. Photosystem I absorbs light at a wavelength of 700 nm, whereas Photosystem II absorbs light at a wavelength of 680 nm. Here, the electrons combine with the protons – H+ which is produced by splitting up of the water molecule and reduces NADP to NADPH2. FAD can accommodate two hydrogens whereas NAD accepts just one hydrogen. For more details on light reaction, dark reaction and the difference between light and dark reaction, keep visiting BYJU’S or download the BYJU’S app for further reference. NADH acts as a diffusible carrier, transporting the electrons derived from catabolic reactions to their point of entry into the respiratory chain, the NADH dehydrogenase complex described below. NADH is a crucial coenzyme in making ATP. It occurs during the day, but the reaction does not use the light directly. The whole process of photosynthesis takes place within the chloroplast. Steps Carried out in Light Reaction and Dark Reaction. Main Difference – NADH vs NADPH. Another THF mediated reaction is conversion of serine to glycine where the hydroxy-methyl group of serine is removed by THF. An example of FAD containing enzyme is succinate dehydrogenase occurring in the Krebs’ cycle. 4. We’ll explain the differences between these two forms and how … In the Calvin cycle, the ATP and NADPH formed during light reaction drives the reaction and convert six molecules of carbon dioxide into one sugar molecule, i.e. What is ADP 4. Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN) and Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD): 6. 8.30: NAD and NADP act as conezymes for many degydrogenases where they are involved in transfer of hydrogen, causing either oxidation or reduction of the substrates. The anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria use light energy but do not have the light reactions as in plants and produce no oxygen. NAD + is the oxidized form of the molecule; NADH is the reduced form of the molecule. Moreover, many recent studies have suggested novel paradigms of NAD and NADP metabolism. The structures of TPP and ‘active’ acetaldehyde are shown in Fig. In contrast, NADP is mainly existed in the reduced state, which will lead reductive reactions in biosynthesis. NADP+ is a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. Co2  is utilized in the dark reaction. The structure of coenzyme A, formation of a thioester and a reaction involving coenzyme A are shown in Fig. What is the difference between light and dark reaction? Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is one of the most important coenzymes in the cell. NADP+ is a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Which of the following represents a difference between ATP and NADH? Difference between Cyclic and Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation. The coenzyme parts of these flavoproteins contain the B-vitamin, riboflavin. NADP is simply NAD with a third phosphate group attached as shown at the bottom of the figure. 8.31: On reduction of FAD by addition of two H-atoms donated by a substrate, it is converted to FADH2. 1. The electron goes to the positively charged N-atom and another hydrogen is added at the position shown in Fig. The only requirement for a fermentation reaction is that it uses a small organic compound as an electron acceptor for NADH and regenerates NAD + . glucose. Share Your Word File NADPH is a product of the first stage of photosynthesis and is used to help fuel the reactions that take place in the second stage of photosynthesis. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? The H-accepting positions are shown in Fig. Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. ... During these reactions, the NADP + molecules are … Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) is also a coenzyme that involves anabolic reactions. Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin! Plants capture the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through stomata and proceed to the Calvin cycle. Required fields are marked *. Glucose is produced. FMN and FAD, commonly called flavoproteins, are also hydrogen transferring coenzymes associated with hydrogenases. NAD supplements are available everywhere from online retailers to your local convenience store. FAD/ FADH2 ATP molecules are generated. The enzyme is present in all livings organisms including plants. Content Guidelines 2. Key Difference – NADH vs FADH2 A coenzyme is an organic non-protein molecule which is relatively small in size and has the ability to carry chemical groups between enzymes and act as an electron carrier. (3,4)NAD+ play a key role in communicating between our cells nucleus and the Mitochondria that power all activity in our cells (5,6,7)Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects. Anabolic Reaction – A reaction which uses small monomers to build large polymer molecules. When this happens, we say that the protein has been phosphorylated. The hydrogen accepted by FAD is transferred to the electron transport chain for generation of ATP. The main difference between apoenzyme and holoenzyme is … Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are derivatives of the B-vitamin, nicotinic acid. The dark reaction occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast, where they utilize the products of the light reaction. ATP and NADPH help in the formation of glucose. The phosphates in this molecule can supply energy to substrates in our cells. nadph + nad + nadp + + nadh NADH and NADPH are water-soluble electron carriers that associate reuersibly with dehydrogenases. No differences in body weight between the placebo and the ENADA -treated males were observed. Glucose is the end product. 3. Electrons then move suddenly from donor to acceptor through an electron transport chain. This phase is the. Basically, respiration is how we convert food into energy using water and oxygen. Other Molecules having Coenzyme Function: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. CONTENTS 1. Enzymes are biological catalysts that catalyze biochemical reactions that take place inside the cell. That plus sign matters, though, because the term NAD is used to collectively refer to the different forms of NAD: the molecules NAD+ and NADH. One of the hydrogen ions is included in the structure of NADPH, while the other is released as a product of reaction. Tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) acts as coenzyme for enzymes involved in transfer of one-carbon fragments, like formyl, methyl and methenyl groups. In comparison, NADP + is another coenzyme which serves as an oxidizing agent in anabolic reactions including photosynthesis. The structures are shown in Fig. One of the main differences that can be seen between FAD, flavin adenine dinucleotide, and NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is in the difference of accepting hydrogen atoms. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This energy helps the plant to grow. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + /NADH) is the most common mobile electron carrier used in catabolism. The key difference between ATP and ADP is the number of phosphate groups they contain. Start studying differences between NADPH and NADH. In general, NAD takes part in the catabolic reactions, which NADP in synthetic pathway reactions. It takes place in the grana of the chloroplast. Nadp is a see also of nad.... Noun ()(slang, mostly plural) testicle * 2004 , Bob Gunn, Sex, Ghosts and Gumshoes (page 119) I look down and the little one has already cut right through my ball sac and is in the process of slicing my left nad free. 1. In the light reaction, the light is absorbed and energy is used to drive electrons from water to generate NADPH and to drive protons across the membrane. Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz, Visit BYJU’S for all Biology related queries and study materials, Your email address will not be published. NADH – An analog of NADPH lacking a phosphate group, which functions in catabolic reactions. In order for NADP+ to transform into NADPH, the former requires two electrons and two hydrogen ions. But watch out; many NAD supplements are full of artificial ingredients and fillers, and some may not actually contain what’s listed on the bottle. Glucose is produced. This molecule is typically at a lower concentration than its counterpart NADPH, which favors the release of the hydrogen and electron from … Biotin is bound to enzymes involved in carboxylation reactions. Choosing the best NAD supplement is crucial to getting all the benefits. This energy is converted into energy molecules ATP and NADPH by using PS I and PS II. Electron Carrier – Molecules uses as intermediates in the transfer of electrons in biological pathways. In general, cells try to maintain a balance or constant ratio between NADH and NAD +; when this ratio becomes unbalanced, the cell compensates by modulating other reactions to compensate. NADH acts as a diffusible carrier, transporting the electrons derived from catabolic reactions to their point of entry into the respiratory chain, the NADH dehydrogenase complex described below. Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): NAD and NADP. NAD and NADP were previously called DPN (diphosphopyridine nucleotide) and TPN (triphospho pyridine nucleotide), respectively. Summary. The structures of some of these compounds are shown in Fig. All these NAD+, NADH and NADPH are important co-factors in biological reactions. It exists in two forms in the cell: NAD+ and NADH. A. NaDP+/NaDPH B. ribose-5-phosphate C. glucose D. ADP/ATP E. NAD+/NADH This is the difference between NAD and NADP. NADH stands for "nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + hydrogen (H)." NAD in its oxidized (after losing electrons) state is NAD+. Difference Between Cyclic and Non Cyclic Photophosphorylation Photosynthesis is the process of producing carbohydrates by green plants using CO2 and H2O in the presence of sunlight. But sometimes it’s referred to, colloquially, as just NAD (no plus), despite the little plus sign after it. NAD+ is a key co-enzyme that the mitochondria in every cell of our bodies depend on to fuel all basic functions. 1. Electron Carrier – Molecules uses as intermediates in the transfer of electrons in biological pathways. The cobalt atom is held in the tetrapyrole ring and carries a cyano (-CN) group. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. In such reactions biotin acts as the carrier of CO2. NAD in its reduced (after accepting electrons) state is NADH. Experiments were conducted with a 34-kDa ferredoxin-NADP + reductase homologous to the chloroplast enzyme and a … The light reaction takes place in the thylakoid membranes. The light reaction is the initial stage of photosynthesis which traps light energy to produce ATP and NADPH, whereas dark reaction is the second step of photosynthesis which utilizes the energy from ATP and NADPH to produce glucose. NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme found in every single living cell. Learn more about Cyclic and Non Cyclic Photophosphorylation at Vedantu.com and regisiter for Online Home Tuition with India's Best Teachers. Respiration consists of three separate metabolic phases: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. The end products are ATP and NADPH. The phosphates in this molecule can supply energy to substrates in our cells. Following are the important differences between light and dark reaction: It takes place only in the presence of light. ATP and NADPH help in the formation of glucose. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is one of the most important coenzymes in the cell. It is a two-step process light reaction and dark reaction Overview and Key Difference 2. NADPH stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen. The only difference between NAD and NADP is only of single P. i.e. Careful calibration and quality control is required because of instability of co-factors, particularly ATP, NAD +, and NADP +, in solution. NADH is the abbreviation for the naturally occurring biological substance, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide.NAD exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form, abbreviated as NAD + and NADH (H for hydrogen) respectively. 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